Home » Java » Enterprise Java » Testing Spring Boot conditionals the sane way

About Andrey Redko

Andrey Redko
Andriy is a well-grounded software developer with more then 12 years of practical experience using Java/EE, C#/.NET, C++, Groovy, Ruby, functional programming (Scala), databases (MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle) and NoSQL solutions (MongoDB, Redis).

Testing Spring Boot conditionals the sane way

If you are more or less experienced Spring Boot user, it is very luckily that at some point you may need to run into the situation when the particular beans or configurations have to be injected conditionally. The mechanics of it is well understood but sometimes the testing such conditions (and their combinations) could get messy. In this post we are going to talk about some possible (arguably, sane) ways to approach that.

Since Spring Boot 1.5.x is still widely used (nonetheless it is racing towards the EOL this August), we would include it along with Spring Boot 2.1.x, both with JUnit 4.x and JUnit 5.x. The techniques we are about to cover are equally applicable to the regular configuration classes as well as auto-configurations classes.

The example we will be playing with would be related to our home-made logging. Let us assume our Spring Boot application requires some bean for dedicated logger with name “sample”. In certain circumstances however this logger has to be disabled (or become effectively a noop), so the property logging.enabled serves like a kill switch here. We use Slf4j and Logback in this example, but it is not really important. The LoggingConfiguration snippet below reflects this idea.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
@Configuration
public class LoggingConfiguration {
    @Configuration
    @ConditionalOnProperty(name = "logging.enabled", matchIfMissing = true)
    public static class Slf4jConfiguration {
        @Bean
        Logger logger() {
            return LoggerFactory.getLogger("sample");
        }
    }
     
    @Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean
    Logger logger() {
        return new NOPLoggerFactory().getLogger("sample");
    }
}

So how would we test that? Spring Boot (and Spring Framework in general) has always offered the outstanding test scaffolding support. The @SpringBootTest and @TestPropertySource annotations allow to quickly bootstrap the application context with the customized properties. There is one issue though: they are applied per test class level, not a per test method. It certainly makes sense but basically requires you to create a test class per combination of conditionals.

If you are still with JUnit 4.x, there is one trick you may found useful which exploits Enclosed runner, the hidden gem of the framework.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
@RunWith(Enclosed.class)
public class LoggingConfigurationTest {
    @RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
    @SpringBootTest
    public static class LoggerEnabledTest {
        @Autowired private Logger logger;
         
        @Test
        public void loggerShouldBeSlf4j() {
            assertThat(logger).isInstanceOf(ch.qos.logback.classic.Logger.class);
        }
    }
     
    @RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
    @SpringBootTest
    @TestPropertySource(properties = "logging.enabled=false")
    public static class LoggerDisabledTest {
        @Autowired private Logger logger;
         
        @Test
        public void loggerShouldBeNoop() {
            assertThat(logger).isSameAs(NOPLogger.NOP_LOGGER);
        }
    }
}

You still have the class per condition but at least they are all in the same nest. With JUnit 5.x, some things got easier but not to the level as one might expect. Unfortunately, Spring Boot 1.5.x does not support JUnit 5.x natively, so we have to rely on extension provided by spring-test-junit5 community module. Here are the relevant changes in pom.xml, please notice that junit is explicitly excluded from the spring-boot-starter-test dependencies graph.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>
 
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.github.sbrannen</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-test-junit5</artifactId>
    <version>1.5.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
 
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-jupiter-api</artifactId>
    <version>5.5.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
 
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
    <version>5.5.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

The test case itself is not very different besides usage of the @Nested annotation, which comes from JUnit 5.x to support tests as inner classes.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
public class LoggingConfigurationTest {
    @Nested
    @ExtendWith(SpringExtension.class)
    @SpringBootTest
    @DisplayName("Logging is enabled, expecting Slf4j logger")
    public static class LoggerEnabledTest {
        @Autowired private Logger logger;
         
        @Test
        public void loggerShouldBeSlf4j() {
            assertThat(logger).isInstanceOf(ch.qos.logback.classic.Logger.class);
        }
    }
     
    @Nested
    @ExtendWith(SpringExtension.class)
    @SpringBootTest
    @TestPropertySource(properties = "logging.enabled=false")
    @DisplayName("Logging is disabled, expecting NOOP logger")
    public static class LoggerDisabledTest {
        @Autowired private Logger logger;
         
        @Test
        public void loggerShouldBeNoop() {
            assertThat(logger).isSameAs(NOPLogger.NOP_LOGGER);
        }
    }
}

If you try to run the tests from the command line using Apache Maven and Maven Surefire plugin, you might be surprised to see that none of them were executed during the build. The issue is that … all nested classes are excluded … so we need to put in place another workaround.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.22.2</version>
    <configuration>
        <excludes>
            <exclude />
        </excludes>
    </configuration>
</plugin>

With that, things should be rolling smoothly. But enough about legacy, the Spring Boot 2.1.x comes as the complete game changer. The family of the context runners, ApplicationContextRunner, ReactiveWebApplicationContextRunner and WebApplicationContextRunner, provide an easy and straightforward way to tailor the context on per test method level, keeping the test executions incredibly fast.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
public class LoggingConfigurationTest {
    private final ApplicationContextRunner runner = new ApplicationContextRunner()
        .withConfiguration(UserConfigurations.of(LoggingConfiguration.class));
     
    @Test
    public void loggerShouldBeSlf4j() {
        runner
            .run(ctx ->
                assertThat(ctx.getBean(Logger.class)).isInstanceOf(Logger.class)
            );
    }
     
    @Test
    public void loggerShouldBeNoop() {
        runner
            .withPropertyValues("logging.enabled=false")
            .run(ctx ->
                assertThat(ctx.getBean(Logger.class)).isSameAs(NOPLogger.NOP_LOGGER)
            );
    }
}

It looks really great. The JUnit 5.x support in Spring Boot 2.1.x is much better and with the the upcoming 2.2 release, JUnit 5.x will be the default engine (not to worry, the old JUnit 4.x will still be supported). As of now, the switch to JUnit 5.x needs a bit of work on dependencies side.

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>
 
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-jupiter-api</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
 
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

As an additional step, you may need to use recent Maven Surefire plugin, 2.22.0 or above, with out-of-the box JUnit 5.x support. The the snippet below illustrates that.

1
2
3
4
5
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.22.2</version>
</plugin>

The sample configuration we have worked with is pretty naive, many of the real-world applications would end up with quite complex contexts built out of many conditionals. The flexibility and enormous opportunities that come out of the context runners, the invaluable addition to the Spring Boot 2.x test scaffolding, are just the live savers, please keep them in mind.

The complete project sources are available on Github.

Published on Java Code Geeks with permission by Andrey Redko, partner at our JCG program. See the original article here: Testing Spring Boot conditionals the sane way

Opinions expressed by Java Code Geeks contributors are their own.

(0 rating, 0 votes)
You need to be a registered member to rate this.
Start the discussion Views Tweet it!
Do you want to know how to develop your skillset to become a Java Rockstar?
Subscribe to our newsletter to start Rocking right now!
To get you started we give you our best selling eBooks for FREE!
1. JPA Mini Book
2. JVM Troubleshooting Guide
3. JUnit Tutorial for Unit Testing
4. Java Annotations Tutorial
5. Java Interview Questions
6. Spring Interview Questions
7. Android UI Design
and many more ....
I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policy

Leave a Reply

avatar

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

  Subscribe  
Notify of