In this detailed Resource page, we feature an abundance of Design Patterns Java Tutorials!
Design pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. It is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into source or machine code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Design patterns are formalized best practices that the programmer can use to solve common problems when designing an application or system.
Object-oriented design patterns typically show relationships and interactions between classes or objects, without specifying the final application classes or objects that are involved. Patterns that imply mutable state may be unsuited for functional programming languages, some patterns can be rendered unnecessary in languages that have built-in support for solving the problem they are trying to solve, and object-oriented patterns are not necessarily suitable for non-object-oriented languages.
Design patterns may be viewed as a structured approach to computer programming intermediate between the levels of a programming paradigm and a concrete algorithm.
Patterns originated as an architectural concept by Christopher Alexander (1977/78). In 1987, Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham began experimenting with the idea of applying patterns to programming – specifically pattern languages – and presented their results at the OOPSLA conference that year. In the following years, Beck, Cunningham and others followed up on this work.
Design patterns gained popularity in computer science after the book Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software was published in 1994 by the so-called “Gang of Four” (Gamma et al.), which is frequently abbreviated as “GoF”. That same year, the first Pattern Languages of Programming Conference was held, and the following year the Portland Pattern Repository was set up for documentation of design patterns. The scope of the term remains a matter of dispute.
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Design patterns can speed up the development process by providing tested, proven development paradigms. Effective software design requires considering issues that may not become visible until later in the implementation. Freshly written code can often have hidden subtle issues that take time to be detected, issues that sometimes can cause major problems down the road. Reusing design patterns helps to prevent such subtle issues and it also improves code readability for coders and architects who are familiar with the patterns.
In order to achieve flexibility, design patterns usually introduce additional levels of indirection, which in some cases may complicate the resulting designs and hurt application performance.
By definition, a pattern must be programmed anew into each application that uses it. Since some authors see this as a step backward from software reuse as provided by components, researchers have worked to turn patterns into components. Meyer and Arnout were able to provide full or partial componentization of two-thirds of the patterns they attempted.
Software design techniques are difficult to apply to a broader range of problems. Design patterns provide general solutions, documented in a format that does not require specifics tied to a particular problem.
Design patterns are composed of several sections (see § Documentation below). Of particular interest are the Structure, Participants, and Collaboration sections. These sections describe a design motif: a prototypical micro-architecture that developers copy and adapt to their particular designs to solve the recurrent problem described by the design pattern. A micro-architecture is a set of program constituents (e.g., classes, methods…) and their relationships. Developers use the design pattern by introducing in their designs this prototypical micro-architecture, which means that micro-architectures in their designs will have structure and organization similar to the chosen design motif.
Efforts have also been made to codify design patterns in particular domains, including use of existing design patterns as well as domain specific design patterns. Examples include user interface design patterns, information visualization, secure design, “secure usability”, Web design and business model design.
The annual Pattern Languages of Programming Conference proceedings include many examples of domain-specific patterns.
If you wish to build up your Java Design Patterns knowledge first, check out our Java Design Patterns Tutorial.
Design Patterns Java Tutorials – Introduction
Some basics on Java Design Patterns
- Introduction to Design Patterns
In this lesson, you will get introduced to Design Patterns. You will learn what Design Patterns are, why they should be used in our code and how to select and use one. Finally, the categorization of the existing patterns is described.
- Adapter Design Pattern Example
Via a real life example, you will learn how and when the Adapter pattern should be used and how to structure your code in order to implement it. You will see how it can lead to elegant solutions to code problems.
- Facade Design Pattern Example
The Facade Pattern makes a complex interface easier to use, using a Facade class. The Facade Pattern provides a unified interface to a set of interface in a subsystem. Facade defines a higher-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use.
- Composite Design Pattern Example
The Composite Pattern allows you to compose objects into a tree structure to represent the part-whole hierarchy which means you can create a tree of objects that is made of different parts, but that can be treated as a whole one big thing. Composite lets clients to treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly, that’s the intent of the Composite Pattern.
- Bridge Design Pattern Example
The Bridge Pattern’s intent is to decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently. It puts the abstraction and implementation into two different class hierarchies so that both can be extend independently.
- Singleton Design Pattern Example
The Singleton pattern is used when there must be exactly one instance of a class, and it must be accessible to clients from a well-known access point or when the sole instance should be extensible by sub-classing, and clients should be able to use an extended instance without modifying their code.
- Observer Design Pattern Example
The Observer Pattern is a kind of behavior pattern which is concerned with the assignment of responsibilities between objects. It should be used when an abstraction has two aspects, one dependent on the other, when a change to one object requires changing others, and you don’t know how many objects need to be changed or when an object should be able to notify other objects without making assumptions about who these objects are. In other words, you don’t want these objects tightly coupled.
- Mediator Design Pattern Example
The Mediator Pattern defines an object that encapsulates how a set of objects interact. Mediator promotes loose coupling by keeping objects from referring to each other explicitly, and it lets you vary their interaction independently. Rather than interacting directly with each other, objects ask the Mediator to interact on their behalf which results in reusability and loose coupling. You will learn how and when the Mediator design pattern should be used and how to structure your code in order to implement it.
- Proxy Design Pattern Example
The Proxy Pattern provides a surrogate or placeholder for another object to control access to it. It comes up with many different variations. Some of the important variations are, Remote Proxy, Virtual Proxy, and Protection Proxy. In this lesson, we will know more about these variations and we will implement each of them in Java. But before we do that, let’s get to know more about the Proxy Pattern in general. You will learn how and when the Proxy design pattern should be used and how to structure your code in order to implement it.
- Chain of Responsibility Design Pattern Example
The Chain of Responsibility pattern is a behavior pattern in which a group of objects is chained together in a sequence and a responsibility (a request) is provided in order to be handled by the group. If an object in the group can process the particular request, it does so and returns the corresponding response. Otherwise, it forwards the request to the subsequent object in the group.
- Flyweight Design Pattern Example
The Flyweight Pattern is designed to control object creation where objects in an application have great similarities and are of a similar kind, and provides you with a basic caching mechanism. It allows you to create one object per type (the type here differs by a property of that object), and if you ask for an object with the same property (already created), it will return you the same object instead of creating a new one.
- Builder Design Pattern Example
The intent of the Builder Pattern is to separate the construction of a complex object from its representation, so that the same construction process can create different representations. This type of separation reduces the object size. The design turns out to be more modular with each implementation contained in a different builder object. Adding a new implementation (i.e., adding a new builder) becomes easier.
- Factory Method Design Pattern Example
The Factory Method Pattern gives us a way to encapsulate the instantiations of concrete types. The Factory Method pattern encapsulates the functionality required to select and instantiate an appropriate class, inside a designated method referred to as a factory method. The Factory Method selects an appropriate class from a class hierarchy based on the application context and other influencing factors. It then instantiates the selected class and returns it as an instance of the parent class type.
- Abstract Factory Design Pattern Example
The Abstract Factory (A.K.A. Kit) is a design pattern which provides an interface for creating families of related or dependent objects without specifying their concrete classes. The Abstract Factory pattern takes the concept of the Factory Method Pattern to the next level. An abstract factory is a class that provides an interface to produce a family of objects.
- Prototype Design Pattern Example
The Prototype design pattern is used to specify the kinds of objects to create using a prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying this prototype. The concept is to copy an existing object rather than creating a new instance from scratch, something that may include costly operations. The existing object acts as a prototype and contains the state of the object.
- Memento Design Pattern Example
Sometimes it’s necessary to record the internal state of an object. This is required when implementing checkpoints and “undo” mechanisms that let users back out of tentative operations or recover from errors. You must save state information somewhere, so that you can restore objects to their previous conditions. But objects normally encapsulate some or all of their state, making it inaccessible to other objects and impossible to save externally.
- Template Design Pattern Example
The Template Design Pattern is a behavior pattern and, as the name suggests, it provides a template or a structure of an algorithm which is used by users. A user provides its own implementation without changing the algorithm’s structure. The Template Pattern defines the skeleton of an algorithm in an operation, deferring some steps to subclasses. Template Method lets subclasses to redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm’s structure.
- State Design Pattern Example
The State Design Pattern allows an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. The object will appear to change its class. The state of an object can be defined as its exact condition at any given point of time, depending on the values of its properties or attributes. The set of methods implemented by a class constitutes the behavior of its instances. Whenever there is a change in the values of its attributes, we say that the state of an object has changed.
- Strategy Design Pattern Example
The Strategy Design Pattern seems to be the simplest of all design patterns, yet it provides great flexibility to your code. This pattern is used almost everywhere, even in conjunction with the other design patterns. The Strategy Design Pattern defines a family of algorithms, encapsulating each one, and making them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from the clients that use it.
- Command Design Pattern Example
The Command Design Pattern is a behavioral design pattern and helps to decouples the invoker from the receiver of a request. The intent of the Command Design Pattern is to encapsulate a request as an object, thereby letting the developer to parameterize clients with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations.
- Interpreter Design Pattern Example
The Interpreter Design Pattern is a heavy-duty pattern. It’s all about putting together your own programming language, or handling an existing one, by creating an interpreter for that language. Given a language, we can define a representation for its grammar along with an interpreter that uses the representation to interpret sentences in the language.
- Decorator Design Pattern Example
The intent of the Decorator Design Pattern is to attach additional responsibilities to an object dynamically. Decorators provide a flexible alternative to sub-classing for extending functionality. The pattern is used to extend the functionality of an object dynamically without having to change the original class source or using inheritance. This is accomplished by creating an object wrapper referred to as a Decorator around the actual object.
- Iterator Design Pattern Example
The intent of the Iterator Design Pattern is to provide a way to access the elements of an aggregate object sequentially without exposing its underlying representation. he Iterator pattern allows a client object to access the contents of a container in a sequential manner, without having any knowledge about the internal representation of its contents.
- Visitor Design Pattern Example
The Visitor Design Pattern provides you with a way to add new operations on the objects without changing the classes of the elements, especially when the operations change quite often. The intent of the Visitor Design Pattern is to represent an operation to be performed on the elements of an object structure. Visitor lets you define a new operation without changing the classes of the elements on which it operates.
Design Patterns Java Tutorials – Getting Started
Simple Design Patterns Java examples
- Java Singleton Design Pattern – Best Practices with Examples
In this post, we feature a comprehensive Tutorial on Java Singleton Design Pattern. Design Patterns in Java are incredibly popular among the software developers. One of the most common interview questions is the Singleton Design Pattern. So in this tutorial, I’ll summarize the best practices which will help developers dodge general issues and develop better applications.
- Java Observer Design Pattern Example
In this article we will discuss one of the numerous Java Design Patterns – The Java Observer Design pattern which is being used popularly in a variety of messaging and notification frameworks. The Observer design pattern is a typical way of managing communication between multiple classes.
- Java Singleton Design Pattern Example
In a massive Java application developed for a large organization, often it ends up hard to oversee and comprehend the code. With a fluctuating profile of designers taking a shot at a similar task, it is essential that the code being produced is justifiable by new engineers that join the undertaking.
- Java Bridge Design Pattern Example
In a large scale Java application built for enterprises, at times it becomes difficult to manage and understand the code. With a varying profile of developers working on the same project, it is necessary that the code being developed is understandable by new developers that join the project.
- Java Composite Design Pattern Example
In a large scale Java application built for enterprises, there are certain pre-defined coding standards and structures to be followed. These standards and structures assist in development of a code that is organised and easily manageable.
- Java Facade Design Pattern Example
In an enterprise application, it is extremely important to manage the code base so that the redundancy is reduced. Moreover, in order to make code manageable, we also need to take care that the classes are structured and connected so that the generic code is not repeated in multiple classes.
- Java Adapter Design Pattern Example
A design pattern in Java is a defined implementation pattern for developing classes and objects. A design pattern provided the base to develop an architecture that reduces redundancy in the code and improves the manageability.
- Java Mediator Design Pattern Example
Mediator design pattern is one of the design pattern that is mainly used to handle complex communications between related objects. This design pattern act as a mediator or middleman between two communicating objects.
- Java Proxy Design Pattern Example
In real world proxy means representative or on behalf of or in place of are exact synonyms of proxy. In Simple words, proxy means an object representing another object. According to this, we can do many operations like encapsulating the essential information of original object, on demand loading etc.
- Java Chain of Responsibility Design Pattern Example
This design pattern is a classification of behavioural design patterns. The pattern is a explanation, used and tested solution for a recognised issue. Design patterns are used more than once. Software design patterns developed as a area of study only when object oriented programming came into existence.
- Java Builder Design Pattern Example
This design pattern in Java is a type of Creational design pattern and it is used to create objects, similar to the Factory design pattern, which is also a Creational design pattern. In simple words, Builder design pattern is a creational design pattern it means its solves the problem related to creation of object.
- Java Factory Method Design Pattern Example
In Factory Method design pattern, we develop objects but without revealing the logic or functionality of creation to the users and use a common interface to refer to newly created object.
- Java Abstract Factory Design Pattern Example
Abstract Factory design pattern is specifically useful to build a class that explains how the underlying factory classes should work. The abstract factory pattern defines a specific set of methods that the object provider factories need to implement.
- Java Prototype Design Pattern Example
In Java, the creation of objects is an expensive job in terms of the processing power being consumed. In case of web applications, a badly designed application normally creates a new object of every involved class for every new request coming in.
- Java Memento Design Pattern Example
Memento design pattern is one of behavioural design patterns. Memento design pattern is mostly used when we like to save an object’s condition so that we can restore it later. Let us look deeply into what objects are.
- Java Template Design Pattern Example
In this post, we will discuss and elobarate the java template design pattern in detail. Java Template design pattern is one of the important behavioral design pattern. Template design pattern describes algorithm steps and can provide default implementations common to most or all of the subclasses.
- Java EE Observer Design Pattern Example
This article is about a Java EE Observer Design Pattern Example. The observer pattern is one of the most widely used design pattern in programming. It is implemented in the java.util package of Java SE 8 as Observer and Observable. By extending these classes, we can easily implement the observer pattern. But this article is not about that. We will focus on the Java EE implementation of the observer pattern.
- Java State Design Pattern Example
In this article, we will introduce java state design pattern in detail. The java State design pattern is one of the behavioural design pattern. When an object changes its behavior based on its internal state, the State design pattern is used. So, we create objects in a State design pattern that represent different states and a context object, the behavior of which varies when the state object changes.
- Java Strategy Design Pattern Example
In this article, we will elaborate java Strategy design pattern in detail which is one of the important behavioral design pattern. The Strategy design pattern is also referred to as a policy pattern which allows the selection of an algorithm at runtime as needed. We define several algorithms or strategies in the java strategy design pattern and choose one by the user as per his or her requirement.
- Java Command Design Pattern Example
In this post, we will discuss the concept java Command design pattern. The command design pattern is one of the behavioral design pattern in object oriented programming where the object is used to hide the information that is necessary to carry out an action or to activate events later. This data involves the name of the method, the object acquiring the method and values for the parameters of the method.