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Jailson Evora
Software Engineer, skilled in .Net, WCF, C#, Java, Spring Boot. I have been working with many different variants of frameworks. I have professional experience with infrastructure and back-end logic. This enables me to make performance decisions and build applications that are secure and scalable. In a real work environment, I feel more comfortable as a back-end developer to design and built data-intensive applications using mostly Java and C#.

Microservices in Publish-Subscribe communication using Apache Kafka as a Messaging Systems and validated through Integration Test

Publish-Subscribe Messaging systems play an important role in any enterprise architecture as it enables reliable integration without tightly coupling the applications. The ability to share data between decoupled systems is not a problem that is easily tackled.

Consider an enterprise with multiple applications that are being built independently, with different languages and platforms. It needs to share data and processes in a responsive way. We can achieve this using Messaging to transfer packets of data frequently, immediately, reliably, and asynchronously, using customizable formats. Asynchronous messaging is fundamentally a pragmatic reaction to the problems of distributed systems. Sending a message does not require both systems to be up and ready at the same time.

Publish-Subscribe Channel

From a simple perspective, the understanding of this pattern relies on its expands upon the Observer pattern by adding the notion of an event channel for communicating event notifications. The Observer pattern describes the need to decouple observers from their subject so that the subject can easily provide event notification to all interested observers no matter how many observers there are.

Each subscriber needs to be notified of a particular event once, but should not be notified repeatedly of the same event. The event cannot be considered consumed until all of the subscribers have been notified. But once all of the subscribers have been notified, the event can be considered consumed and should disappear from the channel [2].

Broker, Queues, Topics, and Subscriptions

Brokered messaging supports the scenario of truly temporal decoupled systems where either message producer or consumer availability is not guaranteed. With Brokered messaging, the queue is the broker that retains a message created by a producer and where the consumer can retrieve the message when ready.

Queue provides the simplest message delivery option. Messages in a Queue are organized by first-in, first-out (FIFO) and each message is expected to be processed by a single consumer. However, Topics and Subscriptions constitute a publish/subscribe pattern allowing the same message to be processed by N number of consumers.

5- Publish-Subscribe

A single message can be added to a topic and for every subscription rule that is satisfied, a copy of the message will be added to that subscription. In this case, each subscription becomes the queue, where consumers can process the messages on a subscription individually.

One of a reliable and mature project that is being utilized by industry leaders is Apache Kafka that provides us the capability to handling a huge number of messages per second, instead of traditional messaging systems that have been quite useful in traditional scenarios but not efficient and valuable in handling Big Data scenarios.

Beyond messaging, Apache Kafka can be applied in stream processing, website activity tracking, log aggregation, metrics, time-based message storage, commit log and event sourcing. In the next section, we will cover in deep the components and characteristics of Apache Kafka.


Kafka is a distributed publish-subscribe messaging system that is fast, scalable and distributed in nature by its design, partitioned and replicated commit log service. It differs from a traditional messaging system to be very easy to scale out, to offer high throughput, to supports multi-subscribers and to automatically balances the consumers during failure and the ability to allow real-time applications or ETL to use it as batch consumption of persisted messages on disk.

4- Publish-Subscribe

Components [1] 

  • Producers – Producers are any applications/programs that publish messages to Kafka brokers.
  • Consumers – Consumers are applications that consume messages from Kafka brokers. These consumers can be a simple application, a real-time stream processing engine, etc.
  • Topics and Partitions – Apache Kafka supports the concepts of message Topics that allow categorizing the messages. It enables us to create different Topics for different types of messages and has different consumers consuming messages. Apache Kafka moreover allows creating multiple partitions in a Topic to concede the parallel consumption of messages as we can have separate consumers consuming from different partitions at the same time. Each partition has a leader node that is responsible for accepting the read/write requests from consumers/producers for that partition.
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  • Broker – Kafka broker typically refers to a machine with Kafka installed on it. However, it is possible to set up more than one brokers on a single machine in a non-production setting. Kafka broker is responsible for managing the message logs and accepting the requests from producers/consumers. Kafka brokers are stateless. This means that the consumer has to maintain how much it has consumed. Consumer maintains it by itself and the broker would not do anything.
  • Storage – Kafka has a very simple storage layout. Each partition of a topic corresponds to a logical log. Physically, a log is implemented as a set of segment files of equal sizes. Every time a producer publishes a message to a partition, the broker simply appends the message to the last segment file. Segment file is flushed to disk after configurable numbers of messages have been published or after a certain amount of time elapsed. Messages are exposed to the consumer after it gets flushed.
  • Cluster – Kafka cluster is a collection of Kafka brokers. All the Kafka brokers in a cluster work collectively to manage the messages and their copies as configured.


ZooKeeper is used to manage and coordinate the Kafka broker. Each Kafka broker is coordinated with other Kafka brokers using ZooKeeper. The producer and consumer are notified by the ZooKeeper service about the presence of a new broker or failure of the broker in the Kafka system. From the notification received by the Zookeeper regarding the presence or failure of the broker, producer and consumer takes the decision and start coordinating its work with some other broker.  Also, it is responsible to choose the new leaders for the partitions.

Case Study

After a little state of art lets, focus on practice. So, our case study simulates the communication between two micro-services builts with Spring Boot micro-framework v2.1.8.RELEASE in publish-subscribe context, using Apache Kafka 2.3.1 as a message system. To validate our study we will be setting and execute an integration test that focuses on integrating different layers of the application in an end to end scenarios with the JUnit 4/5 testing framework.

The Producer API is a module that implements the operation for a business entity service with the intention to coordinate and harmonize economic information relating to enterprises, establishments, and groups of entities. The Consumer API is another module in the same solution which aims to centralize all business entity statistics, receiving data input from a different source.

For the sake of simplicity, the APIs use the H2 in-memory database. The project structure is composed of three modules. Both major modules, Producer, and Consumer have a dependency from the Common module, where it shares things like the error handling and auxiliary classes with the remaining part of the system.

The sample is accessible from the GitHub repository; to download it, please follow this link.

1 - Publish-Subscribe

Let’s get started.

Integrating Spring Kafka with Apache Kafka Message System

The Spring for Apache Kafka project applies core Spring concepts to the development of Kafka-based messaging solutions. It provides a “template” as a high-level abstraction for sending messages. It also provides support for Message-driven POJOs with @KafkaListener annotations and a “listener container”. These libraries promote the use of dependency injection and declarative [3].

Producer API

We need two steps to config a producer. The first one is the config class where we define the producer Map object, the producer factory, and the Kafka template. The second is respected to service class when we set the message builder to publish in Kafka broker.

Producer Config

In configuration class, the constant “bootstrapServers” which is the Kafka server is set in application.properties. Using the @Value(“${spring.kafka.bootstrap-servers}”) annotation indicates a default value expression for the affected argument.

To create a Kafka producer, we define certain properties that we pass to the constructor of a Kafka producer. In “producerconfigs” @Bean we set the BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG property to the list of broker addresses we defined earlier in application.properties. BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG value is a comma-separated list of host/port pairs that the Producer uses to establish an initial connection to the Kafka cluster.

package com.BusinessEntityManagementSystem;
import ...
public class KafkaProducerConfig {
    private String bootstrapServers;
    public Map<String, Object> producerConfigs() {
        Map<String, Object> props = new HashMap<>();
        props.put(ProducerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, bootstrapServers);
        props.put(ProducerConfig.KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringSerializer.class);
        props.put(ProducerConfig.VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, JsonSerializer.class);
        return props;
    public ProducerFactory<String, BusinessEntity> producerFactory() {
        return new DefaultKafkaProducerFactory<>(producerConfigs());
    public KafkaTemplate<String, BusinessEntity> kafkaTemplate() {
        return new KafkaTemplate<String, BusinessEntity>(producerFactory());

The KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG is a Kafka Serializer class for Kafka record keys that implements the Kafka Serializer interface. Notice that we set this to StringSerializer.class as the message ids. The VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG is a Kafka Serializer class that we set it to JsonSerializer.class as the message body.

To create messages, first, we need to configure a ProducerFactory which sets the strategy for creating Kafka Producer instances. Then we need a KafkaTemplate which wraps a Producer instance and provides convenience methods for sending messages to Kafka topics using our data transfer object “BusinessEntity“.

Producer Service

In the Kafka Producer Service class, the @Service annotation indicates that the annotated class is a “Service”. In this class we implement the method to send the messages to Kafka broker, declaring the topic attribute on the header predefined in the application.properties.

package com.BusinessEntityManagementSystem.kafka;
import ...
public class KafkaProducer {
    private KafkaTemplate<String, BusinessEntity> kafkaTemplate;
    String kafkaTopic;
    public void send(BusinessEntity payload) {
        Message<BusinessEntity> message = MessageBuilder
                .setHeader(KafkaHeaders.TOPIC, kafkaTopic)

Consumer API

In consumer, we need to add the appropriate Deserializer which can convert JSON byte[] into a Java Object. To set it, we need the class config and the class annotated with @components that will autodetect this class for dependency injection when annotation-based configuration and classpath scanning is used.

Consumer Config

As well, as we specify the KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG to serialize the message published by producer, we also need to inform the Spring Kafka about constant values for deserialization like KEY_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG and VALUE_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG. Beyond the constants referenced above, we specify the GROUP_ID_CONFIG and AUTO_OFFSET_RESET_CONFIG as the earliest, allowing the consumer to read the last inserted message in the broker.

To enable Kafka listeners, we use the @EnableKafka annotation. This annotated endpoints that are created under the covers by an AbstractListenerContainerFactory. The KafkaListenerContainerFactory is responsible to create the listener container for a particular endpoint. It enables the detection of KafkaListener annotations on any Spring-managed bean in the container.

As typical implementations, the ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory provides the necessary configuration options that are supported by the underlying MessageListenerContainer.

package com.BusinessStatisticsUnitFiles;
import ...
public class KafkaConsumerConfig {
    private String bootstrapServers;
    public Map<String, Object> consumerConfigs() {
        Map<String, Object> props = new HashMap<>();
        props.put(ConsumerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, bootstrapServers);
        props.put(ConsumerConfig.KEY_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringDeserializer.class);
        props.put(ConsumerConfig.VALUE_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, JsonDeserializer.class);
        props.put(ConsumerConfig.GROUP_ID_CONFIG, "statistics-BusinessStatisticsUnitFiles-group");
        props.put(ConsumerConfig.AUTO_OFFSET_RESET_CONFIG, "earliest");
        return props;
    public ConsumerFactory<String, BusinessEntity> consumerFactory() {
        return new DefaultKafkaConsumerFactory<>(
                new StringDeserializer(),
                new JsonDeserializer<>(BusinessEntity.class, false));
    public ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory<String, BusinessEntity> kafkaListenerContainerFactory() {
        ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory<String, BusinessEntity> factory =
                new ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory<>();
        return factory;

On the consumer factory, we have the possibility to disable the use of headers. this is achieved now by setting to false the second parameter in new JsonDeserializer<>(BusinessEntity.class, false));. This allows the consumer to trust messages that come from any packages.

Consumer “Service”

For consuming messages, It is necessary to have configured the ConsumerFactory and a KafkaListenerContainerFactory as we did above. Once these beans are available in the Spring bean factory, POJO based consumers can be configured using @KafkaListener annotation.

@KafkaHandler also is necessary to mark a method to be the target of a Kafka message listener within a class that is annotated with @KafkaListener. It is important to understand that when a message arrives, the method selected depends on the payload type. The type is matched with a single non-annotated parameter or one that is annotated with @Payload. There must be no ambiguity – the system must be able to select exactly one method based on the payload type.

package com.BusinessStatisticsUnitFiles.kafka;
import ...
public class KafkaConsumer {
    IBusinessEntityRepository businessEntityRepository;
    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(BusinessEntity.class);
    @KafkaListener(topics = "${statistics.kafka.topic.create.entity}", groupId = "statistics-BusinessEntityManagementSystem-group")
    public void receiveCreatedEntity(@Payload BusinessEntity data,
                                    @Headers MessageHeaders headers) {
     businessEntityRepository.save(RetrieveConsumerFromReceivedProducerObject.Binding(new BusinessEntityModel(), data));

The @Payload annotation binds a method parameter to the payload of a message. It can also be used to associate a payload to a method invocation. The payload may be passed through a MessageConverter to convert it from serialized form with a specific MIME type to an Object matching the target method parameter. Our class annotated with @Payload is the “BusinessEntity” DTO.

Spring Boot also supports retrieval of one or more message headers using the @Headers annotation in the listener. Multiple listeners can be implemented for a topic, each with a different group Id. Furthermore, one consumer can listen to messages from various topics.

As you may have noticed, we had created the topic building with only one partition. However, for a topic with multiple partitions, a @KafkaListener can explicitly subscribe to a particular partition of a topic with an initial offset.


Last but not least in our configuration, we specify some values related to the behavior of communication between Producer and Consumer.

Producer/ Consumer

On each Producer and Consumer API, we define the Kafka cluster we want our microservices to connect with, using the spring.kafka.bootstrap-servers=localhost:9092. Also, it is necessary to define the topic name to produce and receive messages, the key as well as the group-id.

## Application.properties Kafka config

Preparing the Kafka and Zookeeper for Integration Test

The steps defined below demonstrate how to run and test Kafka on Windows 10 operating system.

Download Kafka with embedded Zookeeper

  1. Download the Kafka binaries. This post is based on Kafka 2.3.1, and hence we assume that you are downloading a 2.3.1 version for Scala 2.12.
  2. Un-zip the kafka_2.12-2.3.1.tgz file.

Setting zookeeper.properties

To make it work, we need to change the Zookeeper data directory location.
Open kafka\config\zookeeper.properties file and change the Zookeeper data /log directory location config to a valid windows directory location.


Setting server.properties

We also need to make some changes to the Kafka configurations. Open kafka\config\server.properties and set topic defaults to one. We will be running a single node Kafka. Also to prevent Kafka to create unnecessary numbers of offset, we specify the replicas to 1. We faced this issue on the windows environment with the latest Kafka 2.3.1 version. This lead Kafka to stop because of insufficient memory to handling a bunch of data create automatically on the initial phase of starting the server.

############################# Log Basics #############################
####################### Internal Topic Settings  #####################
offsets.topic.num.partitions = 1 
default.replication.factor = 1

To finish the Kafka configuration, add Kafka bin\windows directory to the PATH environment variable.

Create and Executing Integration Test

As the name suggests, integration tests focus on integrating different layers of the application, where no mocking is involved. The integration tests need to start up a container to execute the test cases. Hence, some additional setup is required for this, but with spring boot these steps are easy using some annotations and libraries.

Test Class

The first annotation @RunWith(SpringRunner.class) is used to provide a bridge between Spring Boot test features and JUnit. SpringRunner.class enables full support of spring context loading and dependency injection of the beans in the tests. @SpringBootTest create ApplicationContext tests through SpringApplication that will be utilized in our tests. It bootstraps the entire container since the embedded server and creates a web environment.

In our test, we are mimicking the real web environment setting it as RANDOM_PORT that also loads WebServerApplicationContext. The embedded server is started and listen to on a random port.

@SpringBootTest(classes = {BusinessEntityManagementApplication.class}, webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
class BusinessEntityIntegrationTest {
    private int port;
    TestRestTemplate restTemplate;
    HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();

@LocalServerPort annotation provides us the injected HTTP port that got allocated at runtime. It is a convenient alternative for @Value("${local.server.port}").

To access a third-party REST service inside a Spring application we use the Spring RestTemplate or TestRestTemplate the convenient alternative that is suitable for integration tests by injecting it in our test class. With spring-boot-starter-test dependency in our project, we can access to “TestRestTemplate” class in runtime.

Test Method

In our method test, we are using the “junit-json-params“, a Junit 5 library that provides annotations to load data from JSON Strings or files in parameterized tests. We also annotated the method with @ParameterizedTest annotation to complement the library bellow. It is used to signal the annotated method is a parameterized test method. That method must not be private or static. They also must specify at least one ArgumentsProvider via @ArgumentsSource or a corresponding composed annotation.

Our @ArgumentsSource is the JSON file @JsonFileSource(resources = “/business-entity-test-param.json”) inside the test.resource package. @JsonFileSource lets you use JSON files from the classpath. It supports single objects, arrays of objects and JSON primitives.

The JSON object retrieved from the file is bound to the method params “object” that it is converted to a POJO object, in this case, our entity model.

@JsonFileSource(resources = "/business-entity-test-param.json")
@DisplayName("create business entity with json parameter")
void createBusinessEntity(JsonObject object) throws IOException, URISyntaxException {
    BusinessEntityModel businessEntityModel;
    businessEntityModel = new BusinessEntityModel();
    ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
    businessEntityModel = mapper.readValue(object.toString(), BusinessEntityModel.class);
    HttpEntity<BusinessEntityModel> request = new HttpEntity<>(businessEntityModel, headers);
    try {
        ResponseEntity<String> response = this.restTemplate.postForEntity(createURLWithPort("/api/businessEntityManagementSystem/v1/businessEntity"), request, String.class);
                () -> assertThat(response.getStatusCodeValue()).isEqualTo(HttpStatus.CREATED.value()),
                () -> assertThat(response.getHeaders().getLocation().getPath()).contains("/v1")
    catch(HttpClientErrorException ex) {
                () -> Assert.assertEquals(HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST.value(), ex.getRawStatusCode()),
                () -> Assert.assertEquals(true, ex.getResponseBodyAsString().contains("Missing request header"))

After the arrange and acts we assert if our call to the rest API returns the desired result.

Run Integration Test

In our development environment, we need to grant that our Kafka and Zookeeper are up and running in two different consoles as described in the figure

2- Publish-Subscribe

Kafka needs Zookeeper, so we will first start Zookeeper using the below command.

c:\kafka>.\bin\windows\zookeeper-server-start.bat .\config\zookeeper.properties

It should start the zookeeper server. Minimize the command window and let the zookeeper running in that window. Start a new command window and start Kafka Broker using the below command.

c:\kafka>.\bin\windows\kafka-server-start.bat .\config\server.properties

Next, we will run our Consumer API in our idea or we can also deploy it in any compatible web server.

Finally, we can execute the test class as a JUnit test. It will start the server and deploy the API as it will be done normally. Then It will execute the tests. You can verify the tests in JUnit tab.


In this article, we have seen how we can use the publish-subscribe pattern to share data frequently, immediately, reliably, and asynchronously using customizable formats in a responsive way between two distinct microservices and validate it with an integration test through different layers in an end to end scenario.


[1] Kafka 2.3 Documentation;
[2] Gregor Hohpe, Bobby Woolf, Enterprise Integration Patterns Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions, 2003;
[3] Spring for Apache Kafka 2.3.3.

Published on Java Code Geeks with permission by Jailson Evora, partner at our JCG program. See the original article here: Microservices in Publish-Subscribe communication using Apache Kafka as a Messaging Systems and validated through Integration Test

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