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James Carr

Streaming Files from MongoDB GridFS

Not too long ago I tweeted what I felt was a small triumph on my latest project, streaming files from MongoDB GridFS for downloads (rather than pulling the whole file into memory and then serving it up). I promised to blog about this but unfortunately my specific usage was a little coupled to the domain on my project so I couldn’t just show it off as is. So I’ve put together an example node.js+GridFS application and shared it on github and will use this post to explain how I accomplished it. :)

GridFS module

First off, special props go to tjholowaychuk who responded in the #node.js irc channel when I asked if anyone has had luck with using GridFS from mongoose. A lot of my resulting code is derived from an gist he shared with me. Anyway, to the code. I’ll describe how I’m using gridfs and after setting the ground work illustrate how simple it is to stream files from GridFS.

I created a gridfs module that basically accesses GridStore through mongoose (which I use throughout my application) that can also share the db connection created when connecting mongoose to the mongodb server.

mongoose = require "mongoose"
request  = require "request"

GridStore = mongoose.mongo.GridStore
Grid      = mongoose.mongo.Grid
ObjectID = mongoose.mongo.BSONPure.ObjectID

We can’t get files from mongodb if we cannot put anything into it, so let’s create a putFile operation.

exports.putFile = (path, name, options..., fn) ->
  db = mongoose.connection.db
  options = parse(options)
  options.metadata.filename = name
  new GridStore(db, name, "w", options).open (err, file) ->
    return fn(err)  if err
    file.writeFile path, fn

parse = (options) ->
  opts = {}
  if options.length > 0
    opts = options[0]
  if !opts.metadata
    opts.metadata = {}

This really just delegates to the putFile operation that exists in GridStore as part of the mongodb module. I also have a little logic in place to parse options, providing defaults if none were provided. One interesting feature to note is that I store the filename in the metadata because at the time I ran into a funny issue where files retrieved from gridFS had the id as the filename (even though a look in mongo reveals that the filename is in fact in the database).

Now the get operation. The original implementation of this simply passed the contents as a buffer to the provided callback by calling store.readBuffer(), but this is now changed to pass the resulting store object to the callback. The value in this is that the caller can use the store object to access metadata, contentType, and other details. The user can also determine how they want to read the file (either into memory or using a ReadableStream).

exports.get = (id, fn) ->
  db = mongoose.connection.db
  id = new ObjectID(id)
  store = new GridStore(db, id, "r",
    root: "fs"
  store.open (err, store) ->
    return fn(err)  if err
    # band-aid
    if "#{store.filename}" == "#{store.fileId}" and store.metadata and store.metadata.filename
      store.filename = store.metadata.filename
    fn null, store

This code just has a small blight in that it checks to see if the filename and fileId are equal. If they are, it then checks to see if metadata.filename is set and sets store.filename to the value found there. I’ve tabled the issue to investigate further later. :)

The Model

In my specific instance, I wanted to attach files to a model. In this example, let’s pretend that we have an Application for something (job, a loan application, etc) that we can attach any number of files to. Think of tax receipts, a completed application, other scanned documents.

ApplicationSchema = new mongoose.Schema(
  name: String
  files: [ mongoose.Schema.Mixed ]
ApplicationSchema.methods.addFile = (file, options, fn) ->
  gridfs.putFile file.path, file.filename, options, (err, result) =>
    @files.push result
    @save fn

Here I define files as an array of Mixed object types (meaning they can be anything) and a method addFile which basically takes an object that at least contains a path and filename attribute. It uses this to save the file to gridfs and stores the resulting gridstore file object in the files array (this contains stuff like an id, uploadDate, contentType, name, size, etc).

Handling Requests

This all plugs in to the request handler to handle form submissions to /new. All this entails is creating an Application model instance, adding the uploaded file from the request (in this case we named the file field “file”, hence req.files.file) and saving it.

app.post "/new", (req, res) ->
  application = new Application()
  application.name = req.body.name
  opts = 
    content_type: req.files.file.type
  application.addFile req.files.file, opts, (err, result) ->
    res.redirect "/"

Now the sum of all this work allows us to reap the rewards by making it super simple to download a requested file from gridFS.

app.get "/file/:id", (req, res) ->
  gridfs.get req.params.id, (err, file) ->
    res.header "Content-Type", file.type
    res.header "Content-Disposition", "attachment; filename=#{file.filename}"

Here we simply look up a file by id and use the resulting file object to set Content-Type and Content-Disposition fields and finally make use of ReadableStream::pipe to write the file out to the response object (which is an instance of WritableStream). This is the piece of magic that streams data from MongoDB to the client side.


This is just a humble beginning. Other ideas include completely encapsulating gridfs within the model. Taking things further we could even turn the gridfs model into a mongoose plugin to allow completely blackboxed usage of gridfs.

Feel free to check the project out and let me know if you have ideas to take it even further. Fork away! :)

Reference: Streaming Files from MongoDB GridFS from our JCG partner James Carr at the Rants and Musings of an Agile Developer blog

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1 Comment on "Streaming Files from MongoDB GridFS"

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great example- plain and simple, thanks!