Core Java

Cleaner parameterized tests with JUnit 5

The general idea of parameterized unit tests is to run the same test method for different data. Creating parameterized tests in JUnit 4 is far from being perfect. There are many issues with the existing architecture: parameters are defined as class fields and constructor is needed to create them, parameterized and non-parameterized tests cannot be mixed in one test class and built-in data sources are very limited. Fortunately, all of this is improved in JUnit 5!

Note: As an alternative to JUnit 4 parameterized test you can use JUnitParams library that solves many of the issues I mentioned (see my blog post about JUnitParams here:

How to get started?

To get started with parameterized tests in Junit 5 you need to add a required dependency to your project: add org.junit.jupiter:junit-jupiter-params:${junitJupiterVersion} dependency to the project to use parameterized tests, argument providers and converters.

SUT – System Under Test

All the samples I created are testing FizzBuzz class:

public class FizzBuzz {

    private static final int THREE = 3;
    private static final int FIVE = 5;

    public String calculate(int number) {
        if (isDivisibleBy(number, THREE) && isDivisibleBy(number, FIVE)) {
            return "FizzBuzz";

        if (isDivisibleBy(number, THREE)) {
            return "Fizz";

        if (isDivisibleBy(number, FIVE)) {
            return "Buzz";

        return String.valueOf(number);

    private static boolean isDivisibleBy(int dividend, int divisor) {
        return dividend % divisor == 0;

Although FizzBuzz is really simple, it can also be used to demonstrate more advanced unit testing techniques like implementing parametrized tests.

My First Parameterized Test in JUnit 5

To create a parameterized test in JUnit 5 annotate a test method with @org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest (instead of @Test) and provide the argument source:

@ParameterizedTest(name = "{index} => calculate({0})")
@ValueSource(ints = {1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 13, 14})
public void returnsNumberForNumberNotDivisibleByThreeAndFive(int number, TestInfo testInfo) {
    assertThat(fizzBuzz.calculate(number)).isEqualTo("" + number);

The annotation has optional name attribute that is used to customize invocation display names. Available template variables: {index} -> the current invocation index (1-based), {arguments} -> the complete, comma-separated arguments list, {0}, {1}, …​ -> an individual argument.

In this example @org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.ValueSource provides access to an array of literal values of integers. Exactly one type of input (either strings, insts, longs or doubles) must be provided in this annotation.

I also provide additional parameters resolved by org.junit.jupiter.api.extension.ParameterResolver. Please note that method parameters that are resolved by argument sources need to come first in the argument list.

More argument sources


@ParameterizedTest(name = "{index} => calculate({0})")
@MethodSource(names = {"divisibleByThree", "divisibleByThreeButNotFive"})
void returnFizzForNumberDivisibleByThree(int number) {

The @org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.MethodSource refers to methods (1 or more) returning argument source. In this example there are two methods:

private static Stream<Integer> divisibleByThree() {
    int[] ints = new int[]{18, 21};
    return Stream.of(3, 6, 9, 12);

// The returned array will be converted to a Stream
private static String[] divisibleByThreeButNotFive() {
    return new String[]{"18", "21"};

The method that provides arguments must be static, must take no arguments and must return either Stream, Iterable, Iterator or array. What you probably noticed is that divisibleByThreeButNotFive() method returns an array of Strings. This will work perfectly fine thanks to built-in implicit argument converters. This is really useful when the argument source is a CSV (more on this below). In addition, arguments can be converted with a custom argument converters.

To resolve multiple arguments a method source will return a stream of org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.Arguments instances (org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.ObjectArrayArguments):

@ParameterizedTest(name = "{index} => calculate({0}) should return {1}")
@MethodSource(names = {"fizzBuzz"})
void fizzBuzz(int number, String expectedResult) {

private static Stream<Arguments> fizzBuzz() {
    return Stream.of(
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(1, "1"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(2, "2"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(3, "Fizz"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(4, "4"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(5, "Buzz"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(6, "Fizz"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(7, "7"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(8, "8"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(9, "Fizz"),
        ObjectArrayArguments.create(15, "FizzBuzz")


Another very interesting way of providing argument source is org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.CsvFileSource that provides arguments from one of more CSV files from the classpath:

@ParameterizedTest(name = "{index} => calculate({0}) should return {1}")
@CsvFileSource(resources = {"/fizzbuzz/fizzbuzz_1.csv", "/fizzbuzz/fizzbuzz_2.csv"}, delimiter = ';')
void fizzBuzzCsv(int number, String expectedResult) {

Other argument sources

  • @EnumSource provides a convenient way to use Enum constants.
  • @CsvSource allows you to express argument lists as comma-separated values
  • @ArgumentsSource can be used to specify a custom, reusable arguments provider.

Enjoy parameterized tests in JUnit 5!


All the examples presented in this article can be found on GitHub:

Look at the official JUnit 5 documentation to learn more:

Reference: Cleaner parameterized tests with JUnit 5 from our JCG partner Rafal Borowiec at the blog.

Rafal Borowiec

Software developer, Team Leader, Agile practitioner, occasional blogger, lecturer. Open Source enthusiast, quality oriented and open-minded.
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7 years ago

Hey thank you Rafal for this great article!

Rafał Borowiec
7 years ago
Reply to  Stimpy

Thank you! Subscribe to my blog if you want more content like this in the future!

7 years ago

Typo insts => ints

Rafał Borowiec
7 years ago
Reply to  Stimpy

Thanks. I fixed the typo in the original entry.

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