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About Gaurav Bhardwaj

Gaurav Bhardwaj
Gaurav has done Masters in Computer Applications(MCA) and is working in Software development field for more than 10 years in Java/J2EE technologies. He is currently working with one of top MNC. He has worked on various frameworks like Struts, Spring, Spring Boot, Angular JS, JSF, Velocity, iBatis, MyBatis, Hibernate, JUnit, Mockito, Dozzer. He likes to explore new technologies and share his thoughts by writing a technical blog. He is the founder of JavaSolutionsGuide.blogspot.com.

Spring Boot Actuator Tutorial

Hello Friends, In this tutorial, we will learn about Spring actuator and what all it helps us with.

1. What is Spring Actuator?

2. How to add Spring actuator to Maven Project or Gradle Project?

3. Create a Spring Boot project with Spring Actuator dependency.

4. Monitoring the Application with Spring Actuator Endpoints.

Spring actuator

What is Spring Actuator?

Once you have developed your application and it is deployed on production, it is very important to keep a check on the health of the application that is up and running, especially for mission-critical applications like Banking applications, where if customer-facing applications are down, it will directly impact the Business of the bank.

In the traditional way, before Spring Actuator, we needed to write the code to check the Health of the application, but with Spring Actuator we need not to write any code for Health Check but Spring Actuator provides some out of the box endpoints which can be very useful for Health Check up of the application.

How to add Spring actuator to Maven Project or Gradle Project?

Maven

<dependencies>
 <dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
 </dependency>
</dependencies>

Gradle

dependencies {
 compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-actuator")
}

Create a Spring Boot project with Spring Actuator dependency

Let us go ahead and create a Spring Boot Project with Spring Actuator dependency(Along with Web and DevTools) using Spring Initializer https://start.spring.io/

Please note that as of writing this tutorial, Spring Boot version is 2.1.0

Spring actuator

Import the project in Eclipse or any other IDE of your choice and run SpringActuatorApplication.java.

You will see following in your Eclipse console :

Spring actuator

 

Which shows that embedded Tomcat has started on Port 8080 and SpringActuatorApplication has started on Tomcat. Also in console logs, you can see that actuator endpoints are exposed over /actuator URI.

018-11-09 20:00:29.346 INFO 8338 — [restartedMain] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer: Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ”

2018-11-09 20:00:29.354 INFO 8338 — [restartedMain] n.b.j.s.SpringActuatorApplication: Started SpringActuatorApplication in 9.273 seconds (JVM running for 11.823)

2018-11-09 20:00:29.190INFO 8338 — [restartedMain] o.s.b.a.e.web.EndpointLinksResolver: Exposing 2 endpoint(s) beneath base path ‘/actuator’.

Monitoring the Application with Spring Actuator Endpoints

As we discussed above, Spring actuator provides some out of the box endpoints which we can use to monitor the health of the application.

IDDescription
auditeventsExposes audit events information for the current application.
beansDisplays a complete list of all the Spring beans in your application.
cachesExposes available caches.
conditionsShows the conditions that were evaluated on configuration and auto-configuration classes and the reasons why they did or did not match.
configpropsDisplays a collated list of all @ConfigurationProperties.
envExposes properties from Spring’s ConfigurableEnvironment.
flywayShows any Flyway database migrations that have been applied.
healthShows application health information.
httptraceDisplays HTTP trace information (by default, the last 100 HTTP request-response exchanges).
infoDisplays arbitrary application info.
integrationgraphShows the Spring Integration graph.
loggersShows and modifies the configuration of loggers in the application.
liquibaseShows any Liquibase database migrations that have been applied.
metricsShows ‘metrics’ information for the current application.
mappingsDisplays a collated list of all @RequestMapping paths.
scheduledtasksDisplays the scheduled tasks in your application.
sessionsAllows retrieval and deletion of user sessions from a Spring Session-backed session store. Not available when using Spring Session’s support for reactive web applications.
shutdownLets the application be gracefully shutdown.
threaddumpPerforms a thread dump.

Enable endpoints

By default, all endpoints except shutdown are enabled. To enable an endpoint, use following property in the application.properties file.

management.endpoint.<id>.enabled

Example:

To enable shutdown endpoint, we need to make following entry in the application.properties file :

management.endpoint.shutdown.enabled=true

Alternatively, we can disable all endpoints and then selectively enable the one which we want. With the following configuration, all endpoints except info will be disabled.

management.endpoints.enabled-by-default=false

management.endpoint.info.enabled=true

Endpoint Actuator

Let us hit the URL http://localhost:8080/actuator and see endpoints.

Note: I am using Postman to test endpoints as it shows JSON in a well-structured format. You are free to use any other such tool or simply a browser.

Spring actuator

Exposing endpoints in Spring Actuator

As you would have noticed already, here only health and info endpoints can be seen. This is because these are the only endpoints which are exposed by default. All endpoints are not exposed by default for security reasons as they might have some sensitive information and hence can be compromised.

Exposing specific endpoints

If we want to expose other endpoints over Web(Http), we need to make following entries in the application.properties file.

management.endpoints.web.exposure.include= <Comma separated list of Ids of endpoints which we want to expose>

Example

management.endpoints.web.exposure.include= health,info,env

Now after adding above entry in the application.properties, let us hit URL http://localhost:8080/actuator again.

As we can see in the below screenshot, env endpoint is also enabled.

Spring actuator

Exposing all endpoints

If we want to enable all the endpoints, we can use wildcard * as following in application.properties.

management.endpoints.web.exposure.include=*

Spring actuator

Exposing all endpoints except few specific

Below two entries will enable all endpoints but disable only env endpoint.

management.endpoints.web.exposure.include=*

management.endpoints.web.exposure.exclude=env

Spring actuator

Spring actuator

Disabling HTTP endpoints

If you don’t want to expose endpoints over HTTP, this can be done by configuring following in application.properties :

management.server.port=-1

or alternatively, you can configure following in the application.properties :

management.endpoints.web.exposure.exclude=*

Customizing the actuator URL to access various endpoints

By default, all web endpoints are available under /actuator with URLs of the form /actuator/{id}.

However, it is possible to configure basepath /actuator by configuring following property in the application.properties.

management.endpoints.web.base-path

For Example, if you want to make the base URL as /monitor instead of /actuator, you
can configure in application.properties as follows:

management.endpoints.web.base-path=/monitor

Spring actuator

With this, all endpoints can be accessed as /monitor/{id} instead of /actuator/{id}

Spring actuator

Spring Boot Actuator endpoints

Let us discuss some of the most important endpoints.

/health

health endpoint gives the status of the application if it is Up and running or not. This is very important to monitor the application’s health when it is in production. This endpoint can be integrated with monitoring applications and will be very helpful in telling the real-time health of the applications.

Health Information

How much information for health endpoint will be exposed depends on the configuration of the property management.endpoint.health.show-details  in the application.properties file.

if management.endpoint.health.show-details=never,Then details are never shown. In this case, you will see only the following information. This is the default behavior as well.

Spring actuator

 

if management.endpoint.health.show-details=always, Details are shown to the all users.So as we can see in below response, we have diskspace information as well. If your application is connected to a database then you will have information about database health as well.

Spring actuator

if management.endpoint.health.show-details=when-authorized, details are shown only to authorized users.Authorized roles can be configured using management.endpoint.health.roles property.

AutoConfigured Health Indicators

Spring Boot Actuator has lots of autoconfigured HeathIndicators to check Health of the various parts of the application. For example, Spring Boot Actuator provides DiskspaceHealthIndicator which gives information about the health of the Disk space used by the application. Similarly, if you are using MongoDB then MongoHealthIndicator will check for the health of the Mongo DB(whether is is UP) and relevant information is displayed. By default, final application status is derived by the HealthAggregator, which basically sorts the statuses from each of the HealthIndicator based on the ordered list of statuses. The first status in the sorted list is used as the final status of the application.

Disabling all Autoconfigured Health Indicators

These health indicators are enabled by default, however, it is possible to disable them with the following property :

management.health.defaults.enabled=false

Disabling individual Autoconfigured Health Indicators

Or alternatively, it is also possible to disable individual HealthIndicator as below, for example for disabling for a health check of diskspace:

management.health.diskspace.enabled=false

Note: Identifier for any HealthIndicator will be the name of the bean without HealthIndicator suffix.
For Example :

DiskSpaceHealthIndicator       diskspace
MongoHealthIndicator             mongo
CassandraHealthIndicator        cassandra
DataSourceHealthIndicator      datasource

and So on…

Custom Health Indicators

Along with the built-in HealthIndicators provided by the Spring Boot Actuator,we can create our own custom Health Indicators as well. For that, you need to create a class which implements HealthIndicator interface and implements its health() method and return Health as a response with relevant information as below :

import org.springframework.boot.actuate.health.Health;
import org.springframework.boot.actuate.health.HealthIndicator;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class CustomHealthIndicator implements HealthIndicator {

 @Override
 public Health health() {
  int errorCode = 0; 
  // In the above line,I am simple assigning zero,but you can call Health check related code like below commented line and that method can return the appropriate code.
  // int errorCode = performHealthCheck();
  if (errorCode != 0) {
   return Health.down().withDetail("Error Code", errorCode).build();
  }
  return Health.up().build();
 }

}

Let us hit health endpoint again now and see if our custom health indicator is reflected or not.

Spring actuator

As we can see in above screenshot that custom health check has been included.

Health Status per Component

It is also possible to check for the health status of an individual component. In the above example, we saw custom health status as well as diskSpace health status.

In case, we want to see only diskSpace health status, then we can do as follows :

http://localhost:8080/actuator/health/diskSpace

Spring actuator

/info

info endpoint gives general information about the application which it gets from files like build-info.properties or git.properties or from any property under the key info in application.properties.

As in  our project, there is no such file, so if we will hit info endpoint, it will display just empty response as below :

Spring actuator

Spring Boot Actuator displays build-related information if a META-INF/build-info.properties files are present. build-info goal generates such file with the coordinates of the project and the build time. It also allows you to add an arbitrary number of additional properties.

Let us add a build-info goal in the pom.xml of our project as below in the spring-boot-maven-plugin plugin.

<plugin>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.0.RELEASE</version>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <goals>
              <goal>build-info</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
              <additionalProperties>
                <encoding.source>UTF-8</encoding.source>
                <encoding.reporting>UTF-8</encoding.reporting>
                <java.source>${maven.compiler.source}</java.source>
                <java.target>${maven.compiler.target}</java.target>
              </additionalProperties>
            </configuration>
          </execution>
        </executions>
 </plugin>

Now let us hit info endpoint again and we can see build info as below:

Spring actuator

Also, we can add application information under info key in application.properties as below and same will be displayed in the /info endpoint.

info.application.name=spring-actuator
info.application.description=spring boot actuator application
info.application.version=0.0.1-SNAPSHOT

Spring actuator

/beans

beans endpoint gives all the beans defined in the Spring bean container with the following information about each bean :

aliases  : Names of any aliases
Scope   : Scope of bean
type      : Fully qualified type of a bean.
resource : Resource(class) in which bean is defined.
dependencies :names of dependent beans.

For example, I created a RestController with name TestController.java and injected a bean with name TestService.java

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
public class TestController {
 
 @Autowired
 private TestService testService;
 
 @GetMapping("/messages")
 public String getMessage() {
  return "Hello";
 }
}
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

@Configuration
public class TestService {

}

and you can see how it reflected in below screenshot with id testController.

Spring actuator

/configprops

configProps endpoint give  you all the beans which are annotated with @ConfigurationProperties.

Spring actuator

In the above screenshot, we can see two beans which are predefined in Spring framework itself and are annotated with @ConfigurationProperties and hence are displayed under this endpoint.

Below screenshot displays source code of HttpTraceProperties which is annotated with @ConfigurationProperties.

Spring actuator

/env

env endpoint gives you all the enviorenment specific information viz in the following order :

System Properties                     - JVM specific(Platform Independent)
System Env. or Env. Variables  - Operating System specific(Platform Dependent)
application level configuration - Defined in application.properties

Spring actuator

/heapdump

heapdump endpoint gives Heap dump from the application  JVM. This endpoint returns binary data in HPROF format. As the data returned is usually huge, you should save it and analyze.

/loggers

loggers endpoint gives the application’s loggers and their configuredLevel,effectiveLevel(If the configured level is null for this logger and it’s parents’ as well, the effective level will be logger level of the root logger).

levels property tells which all levels are supported by the logging framework.

Spring actuator

logger info for a specific logger

To get logger information for a specific logger, pass the name/id of the logger in the URL after /loggers endpoint as below :

http://localhost:8080/actuator/loggers/nl.blogpsot.javasolutionsguide.springactuator.SpringActuatorApplication

Spring actuator

/metrics

metrics endpoint gives you all the metrics which you can track for your application.

Spring actuator

 

Checking individual metric

You can track individual metric by passing specific metric to the URL after /metrics endpoint as below:

http://localhost:8080/actuator/metrics/jvm.memory.used

Spring actuator

That’s all on Spring Actuator.Thanks for reading. Please share it with someone, you think this might be helpful.

Published on Java Code Geeks with permission by Gaurav Bhardwaj, partner at our JCG program. See the original article here: Spring Boot Actuator Tutorial

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priya

hello is there is any other way to navigate without hitting specific metric, we get value as we get in previous version can we get it now.