The very nature of software applications means they can usually be accessed, bought and downloaded regardless of geographic location. The World Wide Web provides potential access to a truly global market but a monolingual application is one with limited appeal.
To a certain extent, English remains the lingua franca of the business and online world but the fact remains that the majority of the global population speaks no English at all. Of those that do, many speak it as a second language and multilingual users prefer to use applications in their own native language. Imagine a French student who speaks passable English. If your English language application has a specific appeal and no French language equivalent exists, he might well decide to use your application. If there a rival application of similar function and quality that is also available in French however, he is far more likely to go for that.
Localization and the simship model
Localization (often abbreviated in computing circles to L10n, with the 10 representing the number of letters between the “L” and the “n”) is simply the process of adapting a piece of software for use in another locale. Essentially, this means releasing a number of separate products with each tailored for use within its own target market.
These individual localized apps certainly don’t have to be designed independently however. The source code largely remains the same but linguistic translation will often be required and certain cultural and legal issues such as copyright and taste may also have to be addressed.
Building flexibility into the design should allow you to adapt the app subsequently without too many problems. At the time of initial release you might only want a single version, with the option to produce localized versions when circumstances and market research dictates. There are various issues that can be partially catered for during the design and development stage. Some written languages or scripts tend to take more space on the screen for example and areas with fixed dimensions such as dialog boxes can be sized to allow a subsequent expansion of text.
Alternatively, you may wish to release several versions simultaneously. The simship (simultaneous shipment) model is common within the gaming industry and, given that successful apps can tend to go viral, spreading by virtual “word of mouth,” it can be a tremendous asset to have localized versions ready to go at the same time.
Internationalization (also known as i18n for the same reason localization is L10n) takes things a step further, with a single application able to cater to users in different languages.
The most common method is to have a language selection option the first time a user accesses the application. This then serves as a portal to the relevant user interface and content. This is not the only solution. It is possible to have multiple languages present on the same screen for example but this tends to be a messier and more confusing way of doing things.
Issues of translation
Linguistic translation is not the only issue to think about but it is perhaps the most important. Good quality translation is integral to the quality of a localized, multilingual or internationalized app and the services of native speaking translators will usually be required. Automatic translation programs can be great tools under certain circumstances but they are prone to contextual mistakes and should never be solely relied upon.
The user interface (UI), input and display are all obvious areas for translation but other aspects such as product documentation and online help files will also need to be addressed.
What about graphics?
Some images work more or less universally while others may have different connotations in different areas. An envelope is generally recognized as a symbol for mail while a thumbs up sign can mean “okay” in the western world but is more likely to mean ‘man’ or ‘male’ in Japan and is an obscene gesture in Thailand and Iran. Additionally, some images that may be perfectly acceptable in one culture can cause offence in another.
In addition to translating the text and making sure any images are culturally relevant and sensitive, you should also ensure that the formats for currencies, units of measurement, time and dates are all correct for the target market. In the US, for example, the date is expressed in the Middle-endian fashion (month/day/year) but most of the rest of the world uses the Little-endian format (day/month/year).
There is a lot to consider when it comes to developing localized and multilingual software applications. Given the potential benefits in terms of opening up new markets and sales, however, it is a process that is more than worth the effort.
This was a guest post from Christian Arno. Christian is the founder of Lingo24, a leading translation service provider across Europe, Asia and the Americas. Launched in 2001, Lingo24 has worked its way to becoming the web’s favorite translation company, working with more than four thousand translators and clients in over sixty countries.Follow Christian (@l24ca) and Lingo24 (@Lingo24) on Twitter.
- The Multilingual Web (blogs.adobe.com)
- Dynamic Language Delivery for Adobe’s Mobile Applications (blogs.adobe.com)
- Niklas Laxström, language engineer and Wikimedian (wikimedia.org)
Reference: Tips For Developing Multilingual Software Applications from our JCG partner Rob Diana at the Regular Geek blog.