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Dan Newton

The potential traps in Kotlin’s Data Classes

The aim of this post is not to point out some massive flaws in Kotlin’s design of data classes and show you how to get passed them. Actually, it is quite the opposite. The contents of this post are clearly documented in the Kotlin docs. I am merely here to highlight this information to anyone who has not noticed precisely how their data classes are working.

Data classes are convenient for us developers, especially those of us coming over from Java. They provide several generated functions allowing you to write a fully functional class with very little code. Data classes provide the following generated functions:

All of the above are generated for properties defined in a class’ primary constructor. Anything defined outside of this constructor is ignored. This is the potential trap. But, this is only a trap if you are not aware of how data classes work. As I mentioned earlier, it is clearly documented, you only need to be mindful of it. Which you now are, of course.

If you are not considerate in how you define your data classes, you are likely to find some bugs in your application. equals and hashCode are generally essential functions. If they do not work as expected, bugs are sure to follow.

Below is an example of this:

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data class MyClass(val a: String, val b: Int) {
  // property defined outside of primary constructor
  lateinit var c: String
}
 
fun main() {
  // create two equal objects
  val myClass = MyClass("abc", 0)
  val myClass2 = myClass.copy()
  // check their hashCodes are the same and that they equal each other
  println("myClass hashCode: ${myClass.hashCode()}")
  println("myClass2 hashCode: ${myClass2.hashCode()}")
  println("myClass == myClass2: ${myClass == myClass2}")
  // set the lateinit variables
  myClass.c = "im a lateinit var"
  myClass2.c = "i have a different value"
  // have their hashCodes changed?
  println("myClass hashCode after setting lateinit var: ${myClass.hashCode()}")
  println("myClass2 hashCode after setting lateinit var: ${myClass2.hashCode()}")
  // are they still equal to each other?
  println("myClass == myClass2 after setting lateinit vars: ${myClass == myClass2}")
  // sanity check to make sure I'm not being stupid
  println("sanity checking myClass.c: ${myClass.c}")
  println("sanity checking myClass2.c: ${myClass2.c}")
}

Executing this example outputs:

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myClass hashCode: 2986974
myClass2 hashCode: 2986974
myClass == myClass2: true
myClass hashCode after setting lateinit var: 2986974
myClass2 hashCode after setting lateinit var: 2986974
myClass == myClass2 after setting lateinit vars: true
sanity checking myClass.c: im a lateinit var
sanity checking myClass2.c: i have a different value

As you can see the hashCode of each object is the same, and they are both equal to each other, even though their c properties are different. If you tried to make use of MyClass inside of a Map or Set, the chance of entries colliding with each other increases. That being said, it really does depend on what you are trying to achieve. Maybe this is precisely what you want to happen. In which case, more power to you.

Placing c into the MyClass constructor would affect the hashCode and equals implementation. c would then be involved in any calls to hashCode, equals and the rest of the generated functions.

Another solution is to manually implement the generated functions. Rewriting the class as:

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data class MyClass(val a: String, val b: Int) {
  lateinit var c: String
 
  override fun equals(other: Any?): Boolean {
    if (this === other) return true
    if (javaClass != other?.javaClass) return false
 
    other as MyClass
 
    if (a != other.a) return false
    if (b != other.b) return false
    if (c != other.c) return false
 
    return true
  }
 
  override fun hashCode(): Int {
    var result = a.hashCode()
    result = 31 * result + b
    result = 31 * result + c.hashCode()
    return result
  }
 
  override fun toString(): String {
    return "MyClass(a='$a', b=$b, c='$c')"
  }
}

These implementations were kindly provided by Intellij 👏. By specifying all the properties in each of the overridden functions, any properties not included in the primary constructor (c in this case) are now used. hashCode and equals now better represent the class and improves its use inside a Map or Set.

But, and a big but 😏. At least in in the code I have written. A bug has now been introduced. c is a lateinit var and each of the overridden functions now try to access it. If any of these functions are called before c is set you will get an exception:

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Exception in thread "main" kotlin.UninitializedPropertyAccessException: lateinit property c has not been initialized
    at dev.lankydan.MyClass.hashCode(DataClasses.kt:60)
    at dev.lankydan.DataClassesKt.main(DataClasses.kt:72)
    at dev.lankydan.DataClassesKt.main(DataClasses.kt)

Rewriting equals, hashCode and toString to accommodate the lateinit var will resolve this error:

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data class MyClass(val a: String, val b: Int) {
  lateinit var c: String
 
  override fun equals(other: Any?): Boolean {
    if (this === other) return true
    if (javaClass != other?.javaClass) return false
 
    other as MyClass
 
    if (a != other.a) return false
    if (b != other.b) return false
    if (this::c.isInitialized && (other as MyClass)::c.isInitialized && c != other.c) return false
 
    return true
  }
 
  override fun hashCode(): Int {
    var result = a.hashCode()
    result = 31 * result + b
    if (this::c.isInitialized) {
      result = 31 * result + c.hashCode()
    }
    return result
  }
 
  override fun toString(): String {
    return if (this::c.isInitialized) "MyClass(a='$a', b=$b, c='$c')"
    else "MyClass(a='$a', b=$b)"
  }
}

This implementation is safe to use, even if the lateinit var is not set.

Whether you want to do this or not depends on the requirements of your class. Using a data class like I have here inside a Map is probably not recommended. If you want to do this though, you can. Just be aware of how it all works.

If you haven’t done so already, I recommend that you take a quick look at the documentation on this subject. Highlighting this information was the goal of this post. It’s not some fancy code that does something magical. Instead, it is something more basic and fundamental to how Kotlin works. Being aware of how data classes work in this aspect can be vital to reducing the number of bugs in your application.

Published on Java Code Geeks with permission by Dan Newton, partner at our JCG program. See the original article here: The potential traps in Kotlin’s Data Classes

Opinions expressed by Java Code Geeks contributors are their own.

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