Core Java

Looking into the Java 9 Money and Currency API (JSR 354)

JSR 354 defines a new Java API for working with Money and Currencies, which is planned to be included in Java 9. In this post we will look at the current state of the reference implementation:

Like my post about the Java 8 Date/Time API this post will be mainly driven by code that shows the new API.

But before we start, I want to quote a short section from the specification that pretty much sums up the motivation for this new API:


Monetary values are a key feature of many applications, yet the JDK provides little or no support. The existing java.util.Currency class is strictly a structure used for representing current ISO 4217 currencies, but not associated values or custom currencies. The JDK also provides no support for monetary arithmetic or currency conversion, nor for a standard value type to represent a monetary amount.

If you use Maven, you can easily try the current state of the reference implementation by adding the following dependency to your project:


All specification classes and interfaces are located in the* package.

We will start with the two core interfaces CurrencyUnit and MonetaryAmount. After that, we will look into exchange rates, currency conversion and formatting.

CurrencyUnit and MonetaryAmount

CurrencyUnit models a currency. CurrencyUnit is very similar to the existing java.util.Currency class, except it allows custom implementations. According to the specification it should be possible that java.util.Currency implements CurrencyUnit. CurrencyUnit instances can be obtained using the MonetaryCurrencies factory:

// getting CurrencyUnits by currency code
CurrencyUnit euro = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("EUR");
CurrencyUnit usDollar = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("USD");

// getting CurrencyUnits by locale
CurrencyUnit yen = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency(Locale.JAPAN);
CurrencyUnit canadianDollar = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency(Locale.CANADA);

MontetaryAmount represents a concrete numeric representation of a monetary amount. A MonetaryAmount is always bound to a CurrencyUnit. Like CurrencyUnit, MonetaryAmount is an interface that supports different implementations. CurrencyUnit and MonetaryAmount implementations must be immutable, thread safe, serializable and comparable.

// get MonetaryAmount from CurrencyUnit
CurrencyUnit euro = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("EUR");
MonetaryAmount fiveEuro = Money.of(5, euro);

// get MonetaryAmount from currency code
MonetaryAmount tenUsDollar = Money.of(10, "USD");

// FastMoney is an alternative MonetaryAmount factory that focuses on performance
MonetaryAmount sevenEuro = FastMoney.of(7, euro);

Money and FastMoney are two MonetaryAmount implementations of JavaMoney. Money is the default implementation that stores number values using BigDecimal. FastMoney is an alternative implementation which stores amounts in long fields. According to the documentation  operations on FastMoney are 10-15 times faster compared to Money. However, FastMoney is limited by the size and precision of the long type.

Please note that Money and FastMoney are implementation specific classes (located in org.javamoney.moneta.* instead of*). If you want to avoid implementation specific classes, you have to obtain a MonetaryAmountFactory to create a MonetaryAmount instance:

MonetaryAmount specAmount = MonetaryAmounts.getDefaultAmountFactory()

Two MontetaryAmount instances are considered equal if the implementation classes, the currency units and the numeric values are equal:

MonetaryAmount oneEuro = Money.of(1, MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("EUR"));
boolean isEqual = oneEuro.equals(Money.of(1, "EUR")); // true
boolean isEqualFast = oneEuro.equals(FastMoney.of(1, "EUR")); // false

MonetaryAmount has various methods that allow accessing the assigned currency, the numeric amount, its precision and more:

MonetaryAmount monetaryAmount = Money.of(123.45, euro);
CurrencyUnit currency = monetaryAmount.getCurrency();
NumberValue numberValue = monetaryAmount.getNumber();

int intValue = numberValue.intValue(); // 123
double doubleValue = numberValue.doubleValue(); // 123.45
long fractionDenominator = numberValue.getAmountFractionDenominator(); // 100
long fractionNumerator = numberValue.getAmountFractionNumerator(); // 45
int precision = numberValue.getPrecision(); // 5

// NumberValue extends java.lang.Number. 
// So we assign numberValue to a variable of type Number
Number number = numberValue;

Working with MonetaryAmounts

Mathematical operations can be performed with MonetaryAmount:

MonetaryAmount twelveEuro = fiveEuro.add(sevenEuro); // "EUR 12"
MonetaryAmount twoEuro = sevenEuro.subtract(fiveEuro); // "EUR 2"
MonetaryAmount sevenPointFiveEuro = fiveEuro.multiply(1.5); // "EUR 7.5"

// MonetaryAmount can have a negative NumberValue
MonetaryAmount minusTwoEuro = fiveEuro.subtract(sevenEuro); // "EUR -2"

// some useful utility methods
boolean greaterThan = sevenEuro.isGreaterThan(fiveEuro); // true
boolean positive = sevenEuro.isPositive(); // true
boolean zero = sevenEuro.isZero(); // false

// Note that MonetaryAmounts need to have the same CurrencyUnit to do mathematical operations
// this fails with: Currency mismatch: EUR/USD

Rounding is another important part when working with money. MonetaryAmounts can be rounded using a rounding operator:

CurrencyUnit usd = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("USD");
MonetaryAmount dollars = Money.of(12.34567, usd);
MonetaryOperator roundingOperator = MonetaryRoundings.getRounding(usd);
MonetaryAmount roundedDollars = dollars.with(roundingOperator); // USD 12.35

Here 12.3456 US Dollars are rounded with the default rounding for this currency.

When working with collections of MonetaryAmounts, some nice utility methods for filtering, sorting and grouping are available. These methods can be used together with the Java 8 Stream API.

Consider the following collection:

List<MonetaryAmount> amounts = new ArrayList<>();
amounts.add(Money.of(2, "EUR"));
amounts.add(Money.of(42, "USD"));
amounts.add(Money.of(7, "USD"));
amounts.add(Money.of(13.37, "JPY"));
amounts.add(Money.of(18, "USD"));

We can now filter amounts by CurrencyUnit:

CurrencyUnit yen = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("JPY");
CurrencyUnit dollar = MonetaryCurrencies.getCurrency("USD");

// filter by currency, get only dollars
// result is [USD 18, USD 7, USD 42]
List<MonetaryAmount> onlyDollar =

// filter by currency, get only dollars and yen
// [USD 18, USD 7, JPY 13.37, USD 42]
List<MonetaryAmount> onlyDollarAndYen =
    .filter(MonetaryFunctions.isCurrency(dollar, yen))

We can also filter out MonetaryAmounts smaller or greater than a specific threshold:

MonetaryAmount tenDollar = Money.of(10, dollar);

// [USD 42, USD 18]
List<MonetaryAmount> greaterThanTenDollar =

Sorting works in a similar way:

// Sorting dollar values by number value
// [USD 7, USD 18, USD 42]
List<MonetaryAmount> sortedByAmount =

// Sorting by CurrencyUnit
// [EUR 2, JPY 13.37, USD 42, USD 7, USD 18]
List<MonetaryAmount> sortedByCurrencyUnit =

Grouping functions:

// Grouping by CurrencyUnit
// {USD=[USD 42, USD 7, USD 18], EUR=[EUR 2], JPY=[JPY 13.37]}
Map<CurrencyUnit, List<MonetaryAmount>> groupedByCurrency =

// Grouping by summarizing MonetaryAmounts
Map<CurrencyUnit, MonetarySummaryStatistics> summary =

// get summary for CurrencyUnit USD
MonetarySummaryStatistics dollarSummary = summary.get(dollar);
MonetaryAmount average = dollarSummary.getAverage(); // "USD 22.333333333333333333.."
MonetaryAmount min = dollarSummary.getMin(); // "USD 7"
MonetaryAmount max = dollarSummary.getMax(); // "USD 42"
MonetaryAmount sum = dollarSummary.getSum(); // "USD 67"
long count = dollarSummary.getCount(); // 3

MonetaryFunctions also provides reduction function that can be used to obtain the max, min and sum of a MonetaryAmount collection:

List<MonetaryAmount> amounts = new ArrayList<>();
amounts.add(Money.of(10, "EUR"));
amounts.add(Money.of(7.5, "EUR"));
amounts.add(Money.of(12, "EUR"));

Optional<MonetaryAmount> max =; // "EUR 7.5"
Optional<MonetaryAmount> min =; // "EUR 12"
Optional<MonetaryAmount> sum =; // "EUR 29.5"

Custom MonetaryAmount operations

MonetaryAmount provides a nice extension point called MonetaryOperator. MonetaryOperator is a functional interface that takes a MonetaryAmount as input and creates a new MonetaryAmount based on the input.

// A monetary operator that returns 10% of the input MonetaryAmount
// Implemented using Java 8 Lambdas
MonetaryOperator tenPercentOperator = (MonetaryAmount amount) -> {
  BigDecimal baseAmount = amount.getNumber().numberValue(BigDecimal.class);
  BigDecimal tenPercent = baseAmount.multiply(new BigDecimal("0.1"));
  return Money.of(tenPercent, amount.getCurrency());

MonetaryAmount dollars = Money.of(12.34567, "USD");

// apply tenPercentOperator to MonetaryAmount
MonetaryAmount tenPercentDollars = dollars.with(tenPercentOperator); // USD 1.234567

Some standard API features are implemented as MonetaryOperator. For example, the rounding features we saw above are implemented as MonetaryOperator.

Exchange rates

Currency exchange rates can be obtained using an ExchangeRateProvider. JavaMoney comes with multiple different ExchangeRateProvider implementations. The two most important implementations are ECBCurrentRateProvider and IMFRateProvider.

ECBCurrentRateProvider queries the European Central Bank (ECB) data feed for getting current exchange rates while IMFRateProvider uses International Monetary Fund (IMF) conversion rates.

// get the default ExchangeRateProvider (CompoundRateProvider)
ExchangeRateProvider exchangeRateProvider = MonetaryConversions.getExchangeRateProvider();

// get the names of the default provider chain
List<String> defaultProviderChain = MonetaryConversions.getDefaultProviderChain();

// get a specific ExchangeRateProvider (here ECB)
ExchangeRateProvider ecbExchangeRateProvider = MonetaryConversions.getExchangeRateProvider("ECB");

If no specific ExchangeRateProvider is requested a CompoundRateProvider will be returned. CompoundRateProvider delegates exchange rate requests to a chain of ExchangeRateProviders and returns the result from the first provider that returns an adequate result.

// get the exchange rate from euro to us dollar
ExchangeRate rate = exchangeRateProvider.getExchangeRate("EUR", "USD");

NumberValue factor = rate.getFactor(); // 1.2537 (at time writing)
CurrencyUnit baseCurrency = rate.getBaseCurrency(); // EUR
CurrencyUnit targetCurrency = rate.getCurrency(); // USD

Currency conversion

Conversion between currencies is be done with CurrencyConversions that can be obtained from ExchangeRateProviders:

// get the CurrencyConversion from the default provider chain
CurrencyConversion dollarConversion = MonetaryConversions.getConversion("USD");

// get the CurrencyConversion from a specific provider
CurrencyConversion ecbDollarConversion = ecbExchangeRateProvider.getCurrencyConversion("USD");

MonetaryAmount tenEuro = Money.of(10, "EUR");

// convert 10 euro to us dollar 
MonetaryAmount inDollar = tenEuro.with(dollarConversion); // "USD 12.537" (at the time writing)

Note that CurrencyConversion implements MonetaryOperator. Like other operators it can be applied using MonetaryAmount.with().

Formatting and parsing

MonetaryAmounts can be parsed/formatted from/to string using a MonetaryAmountFormat:

// formatting by locale specific formats
MonetaryAmountFormat germanFormat = MonetaryFormats.getAmountFormat(Locale.GERMANY);
MonetaryAmountFormat usFormat = MonetaryFormats.getAmountFormat(Locale.CANADA);

MonetaryAmount amount = Money.of(12345.67, "USD");

String usFormatted = usFormat.format(amount); // "USD12,345.67"
String germanFormatted = germanFormat.format(amount); // 12.345,67 USD

// A MonetaryAmountFormat can also be used to parse MonetaryAmounts from strings
MonetaryAmount parsed = germanFormat.parse("12,4 USD");

With AmountFormatQueryBuilder custom formats can be created:

// Creating a custom MonetaryAmountFormat
MonetaryAmountFormat customFormat = MonetaryFormats.getAmountFormat(
        .set("pattern", "00,00,00,00.00 ¤")

// results in "00,01,23,45.67 US Dollar"
String formatted = customFormat.format(amount);

Note that the ¤ symbol (\u00A) is used as currency placeholder inside the pattern string.


We looked at many parts of the new Money and Currency API. The implementation already looks quite solid (but definitely needs some more documentation). I am looking forward to see this API in Java 9!

  • You can find all the examples shown here on GitHub.

Michael Scharhag

Michael Scharhag is a Java Developer, Blogger and technology enthusiast. Particularly interested in Java related technologies including Java EE, Spring, Groovy and Grails.
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