- Write programs for people, not computers.
- a program should not require its readers to hold more than a handful of facts in memory at once
- names should be consistent, distinctive and meaningful
- code style and formatting should be consistent
- all aspects of software development should be broken down into tasks roughly an hour long
- Automate repetitive tasks.
- rely on the computer to repeat tasks
- save recent commands in a file for re-use
- use a build tool to automate scientific workflows
- Use the computer to record history.
- Make incremental changes.
- work in small steps with frequent feedback and course correction
- Use version control.
- use a version control system
- everything that has been created manually should be put in version control
- Don’t repeat yourself (or others).
- every piece of data must have a single authoritative representation in the system
- code should be modularized rather than copied and pasted
- re-use code instead of rewriting it
- Plan for mistakes.
- add assertions to programs to check their operation
- use an off-the-shelf unit testing library
- use all available oracles when testing programs
- turn bugs into test cases
- use a symbolic debugger
- Optimize software only after it works correctly.
- use a profiler to identify bottlenecks
- write code in the highest-level language possible
- Document design and purpose, not mechanics.
- document interfaces and reasons, not implementations
- refactor code instead of explaining how it works
- embed the documentation for a piece of software in that software
- use pre-merge code reviews
- use pair programming when bringing someone new up to speed and when tackling particularly tricky problems
The only extra I would have included would be:
11. Maintain and update older code.
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