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Biju Kunjummen

Composing Java annotations

The allowed attribute types of a Java annotations are deliberately very restrictive, however some clean composite annotation types are possible with the allowed types.
Consider a sample annotation from the tutorial site:

package annotation;
@interface ClassPreamble {
   String author();
   String[] reviewers();

Here the author and reviewers are of String and array types which is in keeping with the allowed types of annotation attributes. The following is a comprehensive list of allowed types(as of Java 7):

  • String
  • Class
  • any parameterized invocation of Class
  • an enum type
  • an annotation type, do note that cycles are not allowed, the annotated type cannot refer to itself
  • an array type whose element type is one of the preceding types.

Now, to make a richer ClassPreable consider two more annotation types defined this way:

package annotation;

public @interface Author {
 String first() default '';
 String last() default '';

package annotation;

public @interface Reviewer {
 String first() default '';
 String last() default '';

With these, the ClassPreamble can be composed from the richer Author and Reviewer annotation types, this way:

package annotation;
@interface ClassPreamble {
   Author author();
   Reviewer[] reviewers();

Now an annotation applied on a class looks like this:

package annotation;

@ClassPreamble(author = @Author(first = 'John', last = 'Doe')
    , reviewers = {@Reviewer(first = 'first1', last = 'last1'), @Reviewer(last = 'last2') }
public class MyClass {

This is a contrived example just to demonstrate composition of annotations, however this approach is used extensively for real world annotations, for eg, to define a many to many relationship between two JPA entities:

    private Collection<Project> projects;


Reference: Composing Java annotations from our JCG partner Biju Kunjummen at the all and sundry blog.

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