Home » Author Archives: Peter Lawrey

Author Archives: Peter Lawrey

What are the bad features of Java

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Overview When you first learn to develop you see overly broad statements about different features to be bad, for design, performance, clarity, maintainability, it feels like a hack, or they just don’t like it. This might be backed by real world experience where removing the use of the feature improved the code. Sometimes this is because the developers didn’t know ...

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Inconsistent operation widen rules in Java

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Overview When you perform a unary or binary operation in Java the standard behaviour is to use the widest operand (or a wider one for byte, short and char).  This is simple to understand but can be confusing if you consider what the optimal type is likely to be. Multiplication When you perform multiplication, you often get a much large ...

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Java 8 Optional is not just for replacing a null value

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Overview In Java 8, you can return an Optional instead of return null; as you might do in Java 7. This may or may not make a big difference depending on whether you tend to forget to check for null or whether you use static code analysis to check to nullalbe references. However, there is a more compelling case which ...

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Mixing memory unit messages

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One of my pet hates is developers messing up units of memory.  In general, the difference doesn’t matter much, or you can work out what they meant to say, but it does annoy me when developers who should know better appear to be confused about what they are trying to say. From Wikipedia’s Byte page, here is a cheat sheet of ...

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Java Lambdas and Low Latency

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Overview The main question around the use of Lambdas in Java and Low Latency is; Does they produce garbage and is there anything you can do about it? Background I am working on a library which supports different wire protocols. The idea being that you can describe the data you want to write/read and the wire protocol determines if it ...

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How and Why is Unsafe used in Java?

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Overview sun.misc.Unsafe has been in Java from at least as far back as Java 1.4 (2004). In Java 9, Unsafe will be hidden along with many other, for-internal-use classes. to improve the maintainability of the JVM. While it is still unclear exactly what will replace Unsafe, and I suspect it will be more than one thing which replaces it, it raises the ...

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On heap vs off heap memory usage

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Overview I was recently asked about the benefits and wisdom of using off heap memory in Java. The answers may be of interest to others facing the same choices. Off heap memory is nothing special. The thread stacks, application code, NIO buffers are all off heap.  In fact in C and C++, you only have unmanaged memory as it does not have ...

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Chronicle Map and Yahoo Cloud Service Benchmark

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Overview Yahoo Cloud Service Benchmark is a reasonably widely used benchmarking tool for testing key value stores for a significant number of key e.g 100 million, and a modest number of clients i.e. served from one machine. In this article I look at how a test of 100 million * 1 KB key/values performed using Chronicle Map on a single ...

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Kafka Benchmark on Chronicle Queue

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Overview I was recently asked to compare the performance of Kafka with Chronicle Queue.  No two products are exactly alike, and performing a fair comparison is not easy.  We can try to run similar tests and see what results we get. This test is based on Apache Kafka Performance Results.         What was the test used? One ...

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