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Tomcat Context JUnit @Rule

A first draft of a JUnit @Rule that create the test context. This can be used with the Spring context rule for this post to create a complete Spring context for integration tests.

import org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource;
import org.apache.log4j.Logger;
import org.junit.rules.TestRule;
import org.junit.runner.Description;
import org.junit.runners.model.Statement;
import org.w3c.dom.Document;
import org.w3c.dom.Element;
import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;
import javax.naming.Context;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import javax.naming.NamingException;
import javax.sql.DataSource;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import java.io.*;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.sql.Driver;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
 * Creates an context for tests using an Apache Tomcat server.xml.
 * https://blogs.oracle.com/randystuph/entry/injecting_jndi_datasources_for_junit
 * @author alex.collins
public class TomcatContextRule implements TestRule {
    public static final Logger LOGGER = Logger.getLogger(CatalinaContextRule.class);
     * Creates all the sub-contexts for a name.
    public static void createSubContexts(Context ctx, String name) {
        String subContext = '';
        for (String x : name.substring(0, name.lastIndexOf('/')).split('/')) {
            subContext += x;
            try {
            } catch (NamingException e) {
                // nop
            subContext += '/';
    private final File serverXml;
    public TomcatContextRule(File serverXml, Object target) {
        if (serverXml == null || !serverXml.isFile()) {throw new IllegalArgumentException();}
        if (target == null) {throw new IllegalArgumentException();}
        this.serverXml = serverXml;
    public Statement apply(final Statement statement, Description description) {
        return new Statement() {
            public void evaluate() throws Throwable {
                try {
                } finally {
    private void createInitialContext() throws Exception {
        LOGGER.info('creating context');
        System.setProperty(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, org.apache.naming.java.javaURLContextFactory.class.getName());
        System.setProperty(Context.URL_PKG_PREFIXES, 'org.apache.naming');
        final InitialContext ic = new InitialContext();
        createSubContexts(ic, 'java:/comp/env');
        final DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
        final DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder();
        final Document document = builder.parse(serverXml);
        // create Environment
            final NodeList envs = document.getElementsByTagName('Environment');
            for (int i = 0; i < envs.getLength(); i++) {
                final Element env = (Element)envs.item(i); // must be Element
                final String name = 'java:comp/env/' + env.getAttribute('name');
                final Object instance = Class.forName(env.getAttribute('type')).getConstructor(String.class)
                LOGGER.info('binding ' + name + ' <' + instance + '>');
                createSubContexts(ic, name);
                ic.bind(name, instance);
        // Resource
            final NodeList resources = document.getElementsByTagName('Resource');
            for (int i = 0; i < resources.getLength(); i++) {
                final Element resource = (Element)resources.item(i); // must be Element
                final String name = 'java:comp/env/' + resource.getAttribute('name');
                final Class<?> type = Class.forName(resource.getAttribute('type'));
                final Object instance;
                if (type.equals(DataSource.class)) {
                        @SuppressWarnings('unchecked') // this mus be driver?
                        final Class<? extends Driver> driverClass = (Class<? extends Driver>) Class.forName(resource.getAttribute('driverClassName'));
                    final BasicDataSource dataSource = new BasicDataSource();
                    // find all the bean attributes and set them use some reflection
                    for (Method method : dataSource.getClass().getMethods()) {
                        if (!method.getName().matches('^set.*')) {continue;}
                        final String x = method.getName().substring(3, 4).toLowerCase() + method.getName().substring(4);
                        if (!resource.hasAttribute(x)) {continue;}
                        Class<?> y = method.getParameterTypes()[0]; // might be primitive
                        if (y.isPrimitive()) {
                            if (y.getName().equals('boolean')) y = Boolean.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('byte')) y = Byte.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('char')) y = Character.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('double')) y = Double.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('float')) y = Float.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('int')) y = Integer.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('long')) y = Long.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('short')) y = Short.class;
                            if (y.getName().equals('void')) y = Void.class;
                        method.invoke(dataSource, y.getConstructor(String.class).newInstance(resource.getAttribute(x)));
                    instance = dataSource;
                } else {
                    // not supported, yet...
                    throw new AssertionError('type ' + type + ' not supported');
                LOGGER.info('binding ' + name + ' <' + instance + '>');
                createSubContexts(ic, name);
                ic.bind(name, instance);
    private void destroyInitialContext() {
        LOGGER.info('context destroyed');

For example:

    public TestRule rules = RuleChain.outerRule(new CatalinaContextRule(new File(getClass().getResource('/server.xml').getFile()), this))
            .around(new ContextRule(new String[] {'/applicationContext.xml'}, this));

This code is on Github.

Reference: Tomcat Context JUnit @Rule from our JCG partner Alex Collins at the Alex Collins ‘s blog blog.

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