I will start with cryptography itself. Why do we need it? There are at least three reasons for that – Confidentiality, Authentication and Integrity. Confidentiality is the most obvious one. It’s crystal clear that we need cryptography to hide information from others. Authentication confirms that message is send by subject which we can identify and our claims about it are true. And finally, Integrity ensures that message wasn’t modified or corrupted during transfer process.
Yes, it works fine – it’s very hard to modify encrypted message. As you can guess, symmetric cryptography has one big problem – and that problem is “shared secret”. These two words… they don’t even fit one to other. If something is known by more that one person, it is not a secret any more. Moreover, to be shared, that secret somehow has to be transferred and during that process there are too many way for secret to be stolen. This means that such type of cryptography hardly solves our problems. But it is still in use and works quite well for its purposes. It’s very fast and can be used for encryption/decryption of big amounts of data, e.g. you hard drive. Also, as far as it hundreds or even thousands times faster that asymmetric cryptography, it’s used in hybrid schemas (like TLS aka SSL), where asymmetric cryptography is used for just for transferring symmetric key and encryption/decryption is done by symmetric algorithm.
Now if recipient wants to verify the subject who created a message, he will encrypt that hash using subject’s public key (that’s Authentication) and compare it with hash generated on recipient side (Integrity). In reality hash is not exactly encrypted, instead it used in special signing algorithm, but the overall concept is the same. It’s important to notice that in Asymmetric Cryptography each pair of keys serves just one purpose, e.g. if pair is used for signing, it can’t be used for encryption.
Assume in our case verification was successful (if it’s not browser will show is big red warning message, like that one) – certificate has proper name in it and was signed by Trusted Certificate Authority. What does it give to us? Just one thing – we know that we are on www.amazon.co.uk and the server behind that name is Amazon server, not some dodgy website, which just looks like Amazon. When we enter our credit card details and we can be relatively sure that they will be sent to Amazon, but not to hacker’s database. Our hope here based on assumption that such Certificate Authorities like VeriSign do not give dodgy certificates and Amazon server is not compromised. Well, better than nothing J
- Mutual authentication. Certificates are, usually, verified but both sides, not just by client. Client has to send his certificate to server.
- Certificate Authority, is hosted inside the company.
When CA is inside the company we can be almost sure that certificates are going to be issued only to properly validated subjects. It gives some confidence that hacker can’t inject his server, even if he has access to network infrastructure. Attack is possible only if CA is compromised or some server’s Private Key is compromised.
When someone wants to have certificate, he has to send certificate request which is called Certificate Signing Request to Certificate Authority. That certificate consists of subject’s identity information, subject’s public key and signature, created by subject’s private key to ensure, that subject who sent request has appropriate private key. Before signing Certificate Authority passes that request to Registration Authority who verifies all details, ensures that proper process is followed, etc. It’s possible that Certificate Authority can also act as Registration Authority. After all, if everything is ok, Certificate Authority creates new certificate signed by its private key and send it back to subject which requested certificate.
- Certificate data validation – validity date, presence of required fields, their values, etc.
- Verify that certificate is issued by Trusted Certificate Authority. If you are browsing internet that list if already built-in in your browser. If that’s communication between two systems, each system has a list of trusted Certificate Authorities; usually that is just a file with certificates.
- Certificate’s signature is valid and made by Certificate Authority who signed that certificate.
- Verify that certificate is not revoked.
- Key verification – proves that servers can decode messaged encrypted by certificate’s Public Key.
Mentioned above certificate revocation can happen because of many reasons – certificate could be compromised, or, in corporate world, employee, which owned certificate, left company, or sever which had certificate was decommissioned, etc. On order to verify certificate revocation, browser or any other piece of software, has to use one or both of following techniques:
- Certificate Revocation List (CRL). That’s just a file, which can be hosted on http server. It contains list of revoked certificate IDs. That’s method is simple and straightforward, it doesn’t require lots of efforts for implementation, but has three disadvantages – that’s just a file, which means, that it’s not real-time, it can use significant network traffic and it’s not checked by default by the most of the browsers (I would even say by all browsers), even if certificate has a link to CRL.
- Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP). That is preferable solution, which utilizes dedicated server, which implements protocol which will return back revocation status of certificate by its id. If browser (at least FireFox > v.3.0) will find link to that server in certificate, it will make a call to verify that certificate is not revoked. Only disadvantage is that OCSP server has to be very reliable and be able to answer on requests all the time.
In internet certificate usually contains links to CRL or OCSP inside it. When certificates are used in corporate network these links are usually known by all parties and there is no need to have them in certificate.
- Subscribers. Users of certificates. Clients and ones who owns certificates.
- Certificate Authority and Registration Authority.
- Certificate Revocation Infrastructure. Server with Certificate Revocation list or OCSP Server.
- Certificate Policy and Practices documents. Describe format of certificate, format of certificate request, when certificated have to be revoked, etc. Basically all procedures related to infrastructure.
- Hardware Security Modules, which are usually used to protect Root CA’s private key.
- Public Key Cryptography.
- Certificate issuance.
- Certificate validation.
- Certificate revocation.
Vulnerabilities in web applications are now the largest vector of enterprise security attacks.
Stories about exploits that compromise sensitive data frequently mention culprits such as cross-site scripting, SQL injection, and buffer overflow. Vulnerabilities like these fall often outside the traditional expertise of network security managers.